Geopolitics-European Union

PLANETARY GEOPOLITICS AND  ECONOMICS TODAY

 

 VIII-THE REASONS WHY THE EUROPEAN UNION IS NOT A GREAT POWER

Part 1 to Part 11

 

Society for the Promotion of a European Human Rights Model

Association pour la Promotion d'un Modèle Européen des Droits de l'Homme

 

By  Didier BERTIN

July 20, 2012

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

I-INTRODUCTION-page 7

 II - GDP - page 11

1-THE TWO WORLD LEADERS: UNITED STATES AND CHINA AND THE OTHER THIRTEEN  COUNTRIES HAVING A GDP HIGHER THAN ONE TRILLION USD -page 11

2-THE FIRST FOURTEEN COUNTRIES - INDIA EXCLUDED page 13

3-COUNTRIES HAVING A GDP INCLUDED BETWEEN ONE HUNDRED BILLION USD AND ONE TRILLION USD - page 13

4-THE OTHER HUNDRED THIRTY FOUR COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD INCLUDING INDIA-page 14

5-CASE OF THE FIRST THREE ECONOMIC LEADERS COMPARED TO THE FOURTH ONE- page 14

6-REAL WORLD AND MEDIA WORLD - PAGE 16

7-EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REAL WORLD AND MEDIA WORLD-Page 18

8-THE LIMITS OF GDP AND THE DANGERS OF ITS GROWTH - Page 44

 

III-MILITARY DETERRENCE - page 49

1-THE TWO REAL GREAT POWERS-Page 49

2-THE THREE SECONDARY POWERS page 51

3-OTHER COUNTRIES WITH ANNUAL DEFENCE BUDGET  IN EXCESS OF FORTY BILLION - page 52

4 - ISRAEL -page 55

 

IV-OIL: RISK FOR THE DEMOCRACIES - page 57

1 - MAIN NET-OIL IMPORTERS -page 57

2-ORGANIZATION OF OIL PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS - page 58

3-ECONOMIC SITUATION OF OIL PRODUCERS AND  EXPORTERS -    page 59

4-POLITY OF OIL PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS  - page 62

5- THE CHOICES IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY - page 65

 

V-PUBLIC DEBT-page 66

1 - KEY DATA ON PUBLIC DEBT-page 66

2- THE RISK OF OVER-INDEBTEDNESS CONCERNS ESSENTIALLY THE RICHEST COUNTRIES -page 67

3-THE PUBLIC "OVER-INDEBTED" COUNTRIES ARE MAINLY IN THE RICHEST ONES, ACCOUNTING FOR ONLY  13.9% OF WORLD POPULATION -  page 68

4- EUROPEAN UNION, EURO AREA AND PUBLIC DEBT - page 71

5- JAPAN -page  73

6 - POLICY REGARDING  PUBLIC INDEBTEDNESS-page 74

 

VI -OTHER ECONOMIC OPTIONS - page 75

1 - THE RISK OF PROTECTIONISM - page 75

2 - ECONOMIC CHALLENGES- page 76 

 

VII - PLANETARY SOCIAL DISPARTIES - page 80

1-DEFINITION-page 80

2-CALCULATION- page-80

3-GINI INDEX APPLIED TO THE PLANET-page 81

4-ANALYSIS-page 86

 

VIII-THE REASONS WHY THE EUROPEAN UNION IS NOT A GREAT POWER - Page 93

1-EU AND NATO-page 93

2-CREATION AND TREATIES - EXPANSION AND INTEGRATION, Page 96

3-THE PROBLEM OF THE APPLICATION OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS-page 98

4-THE CONSTRAINTS OF DECISION MAKING-page 100

5 - INSTITUTIONS page 101

6-THE POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION-page 108

7-INTERNATIONAL POLITICS - page 112

8-THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ELECTIONS - page 113

9- THE DISPARITIES OF THE MEDIAN INCOME OF HOUSEHOLDS IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - page 114

10-THE NEW MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION -page 115

11-THE LIMITS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION page 116

12-A PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF THE RIGHTIST ROOTING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION-page 119

A-The Prague Declaration of June 3, 2008 - page 120

B-The dangerous consequences of the Declaration  of Prague and of the related Declaration of the European Parliament-page 121

k-DECLARATION - page 135

 

IX - GENERAL CONCLUSION -page 138

 

APPENDICES

1-DATA OF THE FIRST 60 COUNTRIES WITH GDP HIGHER THAN 100 BILLIONS USD AND THE REST OF THE WORLD - Pages 145 and 146 

2-DATA ON THE INDEBTED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION page 147 

3-DATA OF THE  EURO AREA COUNTRIES -page 148 

4-GENERAL DATA OF THE EUROPEAN UNION -page 149

 

 

VIII-THE REASONS WHY THE EUROPEAN UNION IS NOT A GREAT POWER

 

The analysis of what truly represents the European Union aims to determine if it has, as such, a tangible economic and geopolitical impact on the world i.e. if this group of  countries can be regarded as a great power or whether it is more appropriate  to stick to each member state in this field.

Arithmetically the European Union could be the first global power in terms of GDP: USD 17,960 billion in 2011 before the United States: USD 15,060 billion although in terms of defense budget,  the sum of those of the countries of the  European Union  is with USD 345 billion, far behind that of the U.S.: USD 693 billion and that of China: USD 485 billion. Moreover  the sum of the defense budgets of the countries of the European Union, has little meaning since they are not coordinated and have not real synergy. In addition the European Union as such has no army.

 

1 - EUROPEAN UNION AND NATO

 

The EU has no army and of course no single military command and prefers mostly to act in the field of a coordinated defense as part of NATO.

Only 6 Member States do not belong to NATO (Cyprus, Malta, Finland, Sweden, Austria and Ireland) which thus includes 21 out of the 27 Member States of the European Union, the United States and other allies of the latter.

The European Union has thus preferred to act primarily in a defense  organization substantially dominated by the United States.

NATO  AND THE REST

Billions USD

Millions

 

Billions USD

OF THE WORLD

GDP

Population

% GDP

Military exp.

US AREA

USA

15 060

314

4,6

693

CANADA

1 759

34

1,1

19

TOTAL

16 819

348

 

712

NATO COUNTRIES OUT OF  EUROPEAN UNION

TURKEY

763

80

5,3

40

CROATIA

61

4

2,4

1

ICELAND

14

0

0

0

ALBANIA

13

3

1

0

NORWAY

479

5

1,9

9

TOTAL

1 330

92

 

50

NATO 21 MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

GERMANY

3 629

81

1,5

54

France

2 808

67

2,6

73

UK

2 481

63

2,7

67

ITALY

2 246

61

1,8

40

SPAIN

1 537

47

1,2

18

NETHERLANDS

858

17

1,6

14

POLAND

532

38

1,9

10

BELGIUM

529

10

1,3

7

DENMARK

349

6

1,3

5

GREECE

312

11

4,3

13

Portugal

242

11

2,3

6

CZECH REPUBLIC

220

10

1,15

3

ROMANIA

185

22

1,9

4

HUNGARY

148

10

1,75

3

BULGARIA

54

7

2,6

1

ESTONIA

22

1

2

0

LATVIA

27

2

1,1

0

LITHUANIA

43

3

1

0

SLOVENIA

52

2

1,7

1

Luxembourg

63

0

1

1

SLOVAKIA

97

5

1

1

TOTAL - 21 EU

16 434

474

 2%

321

NATO

34 583

914

 3.1%

1083

REST OF THE WORLD

 39 877

 6 108

3.1% 

 1 117

WORLD

74 460

7 022

3,20%

2200

EUROPEAN UNION

17 960

504

1,90%

345

 

The NATO's countries totalize 46.4% of the world GDP and nearly half of world military expenditures, but only 13% of the world population. The NATO's forces are coordinated and thus allows 13% of the world population to have an unquestionable dominance in order to support  most of the richest countries and an ideological economic doctrine.

Most members of the European Union have preferred to incorporate this organization  largely dominated by the United States whose military budget represents 64% of the sum of defense budgets of all NATO's members  rather than creating its own military deterrent.

This demonstrates a shared vision of the world order for most countries of the European Union with the United States and contributes significantly to the lack of substance of the European Union.

Moreover 10 former communist countries which had joined NATO and were then welcomed into the European Union, have strengthened  its rightist vision and its link with NATO.

This integration of the European Union in NATO has also  been greatly strengthened by the return of France on 17 March 2009 at the initiative of Nicolas Sarkozy.

France withdrew from NATO in the past because of a wish of national independence expressed by General De Gaulle, founder of Gaullism to  which Nicolas Sarkozy is assumed to adhere.

 

Before 2004,  10 of the 15 European Union countries i.e. 2/3 were NATO's members against 78% today. 

 

2-CREATION AND TREATIES - EXPANSION AND INTEGRATION

 

Before the Second World War, Europe had  not heard the calls of the two "Nobel Peace prize holders": Aristide Briand for France and Gustav Stresemann for Germany in order that Europe avoids creating the conditions conducive to World War II.

After the war, the ECSC was created in 1951 and  had represented a first reconciliation between former enemies France, Benelux and Germany and Italy and established a free trade zone for coal and steel. In 1957, the European Economic Community (EEC) has expanded the scope of this economic free trade zone. In 1986 the Single European Act was designed to increase community integration, to reform the previous treaties in order to achieve a true single market and give more powers to Community institutions. In 1992 the Maastricht Treaty has replaced the European Economic Community by the European Community with a broader scope including  an international and defense policy and judicial and police cooperation; at the same time a political union has been created and named the "European Union."

In 1997, the Treaty of Amsterdam clarified the concepts of development and human rights within the European Community.

The Euro zone was created in 1999, implemented in 2001 and included 11 countries initially that became 17 in 2011.

The Treaty of "Nice" signed in 2001 established a system of qualified majority based on the demographics of the Member States and adopted the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

Eager of expansion and of large markets, the European community has increased their sizes and that of its Euro zone without establishing sufficient stabilization phases and without even systematically checking the authenticity of the figures of all the countries wanting to join the Euro zone.

 

Its expansion is visible through the numbers:

YEAR

1957

1973

1981

1986

1995

2004

2007

2013

COUNTRIES

6

9

10

12

15

24

27

28

 

 

The Lisbon Treaty of 2009 has imposed as a compulsory rule the application of Charter of Fundamental Rights to its Member States but paradoxically to this obligation, The EU has also accepted that the peoples of the UK and of Poland do not benefit of the rights included in this Charter at the request of their own conservative Europhobic governments.

This Treaty has also extended the qualified majority vote with exceptions and has appointed a representative for Foreign Affairs.

 

The Lisbon treaty of 2009 has also  given a legal personality to the European Union and replaced by the name "European Community" by that of "European Union" in the initial treaties.

 

3-THE PROBLEM OF THE APPLICATION OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL

 RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

 

Despite being mandatory since 2009 for all members of the European Union except for Poland and the United Kingdom who both rejected the Charter of Fundamental Rights without being excluded of the European Union, this Charter does not seem to be really and entirely enforced by all Member States;  it does not seem either that the European Commission is ready to force them to do so.

The rise of a certain number of racist and extremist organizations tolerated or allowed by some Member States are increasing as well as the  limitations of freedom of expression. Moreover the pauperism of certain Member States is of concern and shows the wide heterogeneity of the European Union.

Hungary was shockingly authorized to chair  the Council of the European Union from January to June 2011 despite his dictatorial policy.

The most difficult clauses to enforce, which require steps from the European Commission are the following:

 

Article 11

 Freedom of expression and information 

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. 

2. The freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected

 

Article 12 

Freedom of assembly and of association 

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association at all levels, in particular in political, trade union and civic matters, which implies the right of everyone to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his or her interests.

2. Political parties at Union level contribute to expressing the political will of the citizens of the Union.

 

Article 21 

Non-discrimination

 

1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited. 

2. Within the scope of application of the Treaties and without prejudice to any of their specific provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.

 

Article 22 

Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity 

The Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.

 

Article 30 

Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal 

Every worker has the right to protection against unjustified dismissal, in accordance with Union law and national laws and practices. 

 

Article 31 

Fair and just working conditions 

1. Every worker has the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and dignity. 

2. Every worker has the right to limitation of maximum working hours, to daily and weekly rest periods and to an annual period of paid leave. 

 

Article 35 

Health care 

Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment under the conditions established by national laws and practices. A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all the Union's policies and activities. 

 

4-THE CONSTRAINTS OF DECISION MAKING

 

Two principles may give priority to the action of Member States:

a) The principle of subsidiarity, which restricts the actions of European institutions to those that States cannot drive.

b) The principle of degressive proportionality, which  favors the application of the least coercive action vis-à-vis the  Member States.

These two principles may also be used by the European Commission to limit its monitoring by laying the blame of non-enforcement of the rules on the sole  EU Member States.

 

5 - INSTITUTIONS

 

A-The European Council

The European Council includes the heads of State or Government of all countries of the European Union in order to decide on important priorities in the major fields. The European Council also deals with issues that cannot be resolved at a lower level. It has no power to enact legislation. Mr. Van Rompuy is the current President of the European Council.

The European Council shows that the major decisions of the European Union remain the domain of the highest authorities of the Member States.

 

B-The Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union includes the government ministers from each EU member countries chosen according to the particularity of the problems to be solved. The presidency of the Council of the European Union is rotating with a different country every semester.

The Council of the European Union adopts legislation of the European Union, coordinates the broad guidelines of economic policies of Member States, signs agreements with other countries, approves the annual budget of the European Union, defines its foreign policy and defense and also coordinates the cooperation between the courts and police forces of Member States. 

The prerogatives of the Council of the European Union and those of the European Council, show that Member States retain control on the European Union at their level and do not wish to transfer any real power to an elected representation by the all the European citizens such as the European Parliament.  Indeed the Council of the European Union together with the Parliament share the common responsibility for the final decision on the legislation proposed by the European Commission. 

The Council of the European Union is indirectly an extension of the majorities and of the national parliaments and plays the role of a European Parliament. It shares its power with the "official" European Parliament whose decisions have an impact only if the Council of the European Union also agree with them. This designated organization (Council of the European Union) has therefore "somehow" a control over the elected body of the European Union (the European Parliament). 

Regarding security, foreign affairs and taxation, the Council of the European Union must make its decisions unanimously. This means that any single Member State can veto. The Council of the European Union usually takes its decisions by qualified majority in accordance with demographic considerations, according to the following rules: 

 

Countries

Countries

Number

Votes per country

Germany, France, Italy , UK

4

29

Spain, Poland

2

27

Romania

1

14

Netherlands

1

13

Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Portugal, Czech Rep

5

12

Austria, Bulgaria, Sweden

3

10

Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia

5

7

Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg,   Slovenia

5

4

Malta

1

3

TOTAL

27

345

 

A qualified majority is reached if (i) a majority of the 27 Member States approves a proposal  (two-thirds majority for the projects not proposed by the European Commission), if (ii) a minimum of 255 out of 345 votes are obtained and if (iii) the favorable voting countries represent at least 62% of the total population of the European Union (upon request).

 

This system will be simplified in 2014 by a double majority of 55% of voters representing at least 65% of the population of the European Union. 

 

THE WEIGHT OF THE VOTES OF THE COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO THEIR GDP

Countries

GDP/POP

Entrance

date

VOTE SHARE

in %

Shares Sum

Dominant Party -EU

SWEDEN

63 556

1995

10

2,9

10

 PPE

LUXEMBOURG

63 000

1952

4

1,1

14

 PPE

DANEMARK

58 166

1973

7

2

21

 S&D

FINLAND

54 200

1995

7

2

28

 PPE

AUSTRIA

53 125

1995

10

2,9

38

 S&D

BELGIUM

52 900

1952

12

3,5

50

  S&D

NETHERLANDS

50 471

1952

13

3,8

63

 ALD

GERMANY

44 802

1952

29

8,4

102

 PPE

FRANCE

42 545

1952

29

8,4

131

 PSE

IRELAND

44 400

1973

7

2

138

 PPE

UNITED KINGDOM

39 380

1973

29

8,4

167

ECR

ITALY

36 820

1952

29

8,4

196

 Indépendant

SPAIN

32 702

1986

27

7,8

223

PPE

GREECE

28 364

1981

12

3,5

235

PPE

CYPRUS

26 000

2004

4

1,2

239

GUE/NGL

SLOVENIA

26 000

2004

4

1,2

243

 PPE

ESTONIA

23 000

2004

4

1,2

247

 ALD

PORTUGAL

22 000

1986

12

3,5

259

 PPE

CZECH REP.

22 000

2004

12

3,5

271

 ECR

MALTA

21 000

2004

3

0,9

274

 PPE

SLOVAKIA

19 400

2004

7

2

281

 S&D

HUNGARY

14 800

2004

12

3,5

293

 PPE

POLAND

14 000

2004

27

7,8

320

 PPE

LATVIA

13 500

2004

4

1,2

324

 PPE

LTHUANIA

10 750

2004

7

2

331

 Indépendant

ROMANIA

8 409

2007

14

4

335

 PPE

BULGARIA

7 714

2007

10

2,9

345

 PPE

 

13 of the 27 countries, which are richest and include six founding members and eleven of the twelve EEC countries, have an absolute majority and two-thirds majority in the Council of the European Union.

 

C-The European Commission

The European Commission represents and upholds the interests of the European Union as a whole. It submits proposals for new legislation to Parliament and the Council of the European Union, manages the budget of the European Union, provides financing and ensure the application of European law. The Commission consists of 27 commissioners, one from each Member State, who are appointed for five years. The President gives each commissioner one or more specific areas. The President is appointed by the European Council, who also appoints other commissioners in agreement with the President. 

The Commission has a right of law initiative: The Commission may propose new laws (which must be approved by at least by 14 of the 27 commissioners) that aim to defend the interests of the European Union in areas that cannot be treated at the national level (principle of subsidiarity). 

The legislative initiative is thus the privileged area of the Commission . As guardian of the Treaties, the Commission should normally ensure that each Member State shall apply the law correctly in the European Union. In practice it appears that a member state  may resist this application because of its importance or of the lack of interest of the Commission that may wish to avoid a conflict.

 

D-The European Parliament

The European Parliament is currently composed of 753 MEPs elected by universal proportional suffrage and on the basis of lists, every five years and who are supposed to represent the citizens of Europe. The Parliament shares the legislative power with the Council of the European Union. The number of seats will be reduced to 736 for the next  elections of June 2014 and distributed as follows:

Countries

GDP/POP

SEATS

%

cumulative   seats

SWEDEN

63 556

18

2,4

18

LUXEMBOURG

63 000

6

0,8

24

DANEMARK

58 166

13

1,8

37

FINLAND

54 200

13

1,8

50

AUSTRIA

53 125

17

2,3

67

BELGIUM

52 900

22

3

89

NETHERLANDS

50 471

25

3,4

114

GERMANY

44 802

99

13,5

213

FRANCE

42 545

72

9,8

285

IRELAND

44 400

12

1,6

297

UNITED KINGDOM

39 380

72

9,8

369

ITALY

36 820

72

9,8

441

SPAIN

32 702

50

6,8

491

GREECE

28 364

22

3

513

CYPRUS

26 000

6

0,8

519

SLOVENIA

26 000

7

1

526

ESTONIA

23 000

6

0,8

532

PORTUGAL

22 000

22

3

554

CZECH REPUBLIC

22 000

22

3

576

MALTA

21 000

5

0,7

581

SLOVAKIA

19 400

13

1,8

594

HUNGARY

14 800

22

3

616

POLAND

14 000

50

6,7

666

LATVIA

13 500

8

1

674

LTHUANIA

10 750

12

1,6

686

ROMANIA

8 409

33

4,5

719

BULGARIA

7 714

17

2,3

736

In fact the  figures of 2014 should be increased by the new coming Croatian MPs.

As we can see in the above table, the majority may be gained by the eleven richest countries also representing eleven of the twelve former members of the EEC. Furthermore the number of votes in the Council of the European Union and the number of seats in Parliament are supposed to be calculated on the basis of national demographics  and yet different percentages are applied.

The 2014 reform regarding the rule of vote in the Council of the European Union in 2014 will bring more clarity. 

The Parliament adopts the European laws together with the Council of the European Union, has a control over the activities of other institutions of the European Union, including the Commission and adopt the budget of the European Union also with the Council of the European Union. The Parliament may have an influence on the designation of the members of the European Commission and may "in principle" force it to resign. The Parliament may ask the commissioners to report on their action. 

The Parliament elected by the European citizens could be the key institution of the European Union, as is the case of national parliaments, but in fact it seems to be only an expensive ceremonial institution without power of law initiative or capacity to adopt the laws proposed by the European Commission, without the consent of the Council of the European Union that in fact oversees its legislative activity.

 

Some MEPs may have been designated on the lists  by their party when they have failed to be elected to their National Parliament. Moreover, the strict proportional representation opens the doors to extremist parties.

If the European Union was a nation and not a group of countries, the European Parliament would have a similar role to the national parliaments, which is not the case at all. The real European Parliament is currently all the National Parliaments of the Member States whose orientation can be seen through the members of the European Council and of the Council of the European Union.

Their members are in one way or another a reflect of the majorities of national parliaments.

However the political ties of the European Parliament are heavily marked on the right wing and if the power of the European parliament was not restricted, it could be in major conflict with the societal choices of some Member States without possibility of moderation  through the intervention of the Member States themselves.

 

6-THE POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

 

A-THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: DISTRIBUTION OF SEATS

 

  • CONSERVATIVES PARTIES: 472 seats or 62.7% of MEPs

EPP -European People's Party- Europhile-Rightists: 271;

ALD-Alliance of Liberals and Democrats - Center Rightists: 85;

ECR-European Conservatives and Reformists -anti-Federalist Rightists: 52;

EFD - Europe of Freedom and Democracy - Europhobic Rightists: 34;

IN (Independent people and various extremists): 30

 

  • PROGRESSIVES PARTIES: 281 seats or 37.3% of MEPs 

S & D - Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats: 189

GUE-NGL -European United Left / Nordic Green Left: 34

G /EFN - Greens/European Free Alliance: 58

 

B-THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL

CONSERVATIVES PARTIES: 9 heads of government or 70.4% of the members

EPP - Europhile Rightists: 15  

ALD-Center-Rightists: 2,

ECR- Anti-Federalist Rightists: 2 - INDEPENDENT: 2 heads of government, or 7.4% of members

PROGRESSIVE PARTIES: 6 heads of government, or 22.2% of the members   

 S & D: 5   - GUE/NGL: 1

C-INFLUENCE OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL MAJORITIES ON THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

Countries

GDP/POP

Entrance

date

VOTE SHARE

in %

Shares

% Sum

Dominant Party

SWEDEN

63 556

1995

10

2,9

2.9

PPE

LUXEMBOURG

63 000

1952

4

1,1

4

PPE

FINLAND

54 200

1995

7

2

6

PPE

GERMANY

44 802

1952

29

8,4

14.4

PPE

SPAIN

32 702

1986

27

7,8

22.2

PPE

GREECE

28 364

1981

12

3,5

25.7

PPE

IRELAND

44 400

1973

7

2

27.7

 PPE

SLOVENIA

26 000

2004

4

1,2

28.9

 PPE

PORTUGAL

22 000

1986

12

3,5

32.4

 PPE

MALTA

21 000

2004

3

0,9

33.3

 PPE

HUNGARY

14 800

2004

12

3,5

36.8

 PPE

POLAND

14 000

2004

27

7,8

44.6

 PPE

LATVIA

13 500

2004

4

1,2

45.8

 PPE

ROMANIA

8 409

2007

14

4

49.8

PPE

BULGARIA

7 714

2007

10

2,9

52.7

 PPE

UNITED   KINGDOM

39 380

1973

29

8,4

61.1

ECR

CZECH REP.

22 000

2004

12

3,5

64.6

ECR

NETHERLANDS

50 471

1952

13

3,8

68.4

ALD

ESTONIA

23 000

2004

4

1,2

69.6

 ALD

DANEMARK

58 166

1973

7

2

2

 S&D

AUSTRIA

53 125

1995

10

2,9

4.9

 S&D

BELGIUM

52 900

1952

12

3,5

8.4

 S&D

FRANCE

42 545

1952

29

8,4

16.8

 S&D

CYPRUS

26 000

2004

4

1,2

18

GUE/NGL

SLOVAKIA

19 400

2004

7

2

20

S&D

LITHUANIA

10 750

2004

7

2

2

 Indépendant

ITALY

36 820

1952

29

8,4

10.4

 Indépendant

  

CONSERVATIVE PARTIES: 19 countries - 69.6% of votes

PROGRESSIVE PARTIES: 6 countries - 20% of votes

INDEPENDENT: 2 COUNTRIES - 10.4% of votes 

 

D-THE DOMINANT POWER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

The right wing is thus the "overwhelmingly dominant" power in the European Union and substantially  controls all of its institutions.

The EPP (European People's Party) which represents the Europhile conservative right wing, is itself the dominant party of this power.

The President of the Commission Jose Manuel Barroso and the President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, and the Hungarian quasi-dictator,, Viktor Horban are Vice-Presidents of the EPP. Herman Van Rompuy belongs to the conservative side of the rightist Belgian party: "Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams."

Jose Manuel Barroso was prime minister of Portugal in 2002 and apparently did not take the necessary steps to prevent his country from plunging into a major crisis due to deep structural reasons and Herman Van Rompuy has not spared Belgium from its public debt crisis and communities conflict when he was Prime Minister until November 2009.

The presidents of the European Union institutions seem therefore having been chosen primarily for their opinions. 

Thus the rightist vision is the basis of the European Union politics and this has the following effects:

  • Predominance of the policies of austerity,  i.e. cuts of  expenses  to solve the situation of budget deficits without enough consideration any possible increase of  the revenues of the states by an adequate tax policy, social reforms or steps to boost the general activity. This is doctrinal choice  minimizing the role of the State.
  • Accelerated growing of the number of the Member States in order to offer new market opportunities to major companies at the expense of European integration
  • Reduction of  labor cost by restricting social policy
  • Incorrect application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and  total exemption  of  its application granted  to the most antisocial countries.
  • Publication by the European Commission of a report highly critical of the program of the French Socialist Party regarding its proposal for retirement, in the middle of the parliamentary election campaign of June 2012 and which was a clearly political offensive.
  • The European Union supports the doctrinal capitalism and tends to reject the Member States which do not share its ideas.
  • The Rightist Declaration in 2008 by a majority in the European Parliament linked to that of Prague equating crudely communism and Nazism, whose consequence was the opacification of the horror of Nazism and shading on the memory of its  victims.

The European Union cannot be under these conditions neither a nation nor a great power.

 

7-INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

 

National governments exert independent control over these issues, but they cooperate together to develop an "International Politics and Security Policy." The EU has no army and most of its actions are coordinated within the NATO that comprises twenty one of the twenty seven Member States of the European Union.

It seems, that the most important members-States wish to retain control of their foreign policies and in this purpose the EU has designated a High Representative for Foreign affairs for the form only.

The international positions of the European Union appear to lack substance e.g. the European Union has on one side protested against the imprisonment since August 5, 2011 of Yulia Tymoshenko (who obtained 45.88% of votes in the presidential elections of January 2010) probably orchestrated by her rival President Viktor Yanukovych (48.53% of votes) who remains totally indifferent to the protest of the EU and was probably encouraged to behave in this manner by the participation on the Ukrainian territory, of the football teams of all Member States of the European Union, to the EURO in 2012.

 

8-THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ELECTIONS

 

This is a proportional suffrage by not alterable lists in one single round.

From 2004 to 2009, the abstention rate in the European elections increased from 45.7% to 57% up from 37% in the first elections in 1979. In France the rate increased gradually from 39.3% in 1979 to 59.5% in 2009.

The European electorate does not seem to be fooled by the limits of the European Parliament, which can only approved the laws proposed by the Commission and agreed by the Council of the European Union, the latter being itself a kind of European Parliament. Also the very strong rightist ties of the European Parliament does not leave much hope for change.

 

9- THE DISPARITIES OF THE MEDIAN INCOME OF HOUSEHOLDS   IN THE

COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

 

Median gross disposable income of households per capita in the EU in 2010 - Source: Eurostat (extraction June 20, 2012)

 

2010

Euros /year

Euros/month

Value/average

1

Luxembourg

32 333

2 694

2,19

2

DENMARK

25 668

2 139

1,74

3

FINLAND

21 349

1 779

1,45

4

AUSTRIA

20 618

1 718

1,4

5

NETHERLANDS

20 292

1 691

1,38

6

FRANCE

20 058

1 672

1,36

7

IRELAND

19 882

1 656

1,35

8

SWEDEN

19 709

1 642

1,34

9

BELGIUM

19 464

1 622

1,32

10

GERMANY

18 797

1 566

1,27

11

United Kingdom

17 106

1 425

1,16

12

CYPRUS

16 981

1 415

1,15

13

ITALY

15 937

1 328

1,1

14

SPAIN

13 030

1 085

0,88

15

GREECE

11 963

997

0,81

16

SLOVENIA

11 736

978

0,8

17

MALTA

10 458

872

0,71

18

PORTUGAL

8 678

723

0,59

19

CZECH Republic

7 058

588

0,48

20

SLOVAKIA

6 117

509

0,41

21

ESTONIA

5 727

477

0,39

22

LATVIA

4 537

378

0,31

23

POLAND

4 405

367

0,3

24

HUNGARY

4 241

353

0,29

25

LITHUANIA

4 059

338

0,27

26

BULGARIA

3 016

251

0,2

27

ROMANIA

2 037

170

0,14

 

European Union

14 751

1 229

1

  

The disparities are substantial and show the heterogeneity that would be totally unacceptable if the European Union was a nation. The averaged median income of the European union is low and below the French minimum wage of 1,343 Euros in 2010.

The highest median income represents 15.8 times the lowest one. France ranks sixth, ahead of Germany who ranks before the  UK that holds the 11th place. Median incomes for the first nine countries are higher than that of the United States in 2010 (approximately 19,400 Euros).

Apart from Slovenia all Eastern countries remain poor in 2010 after six years in the European Union and three for Bulgaria and Romania, but after twenty years in the capitalist system from which they expected a substantial  enrichment

 

10 - THE NEW MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

 

In 2004 and 2007, the EU has expanded from fifteen to twenty-seven Member States and should reach twenty eight in 2013, by integration of most former communist countries of Europe (ten) and Cyprus and Malta and Croatia in 2013.

This sudden enlargement of the European Union has complicated its administration and organization of its institutions and has strengthened its rooting on the right wing as well as in the NATO.

This expansion process by heterogeneous integration is a growth process similar to that of  conglomerates. The growth of 80% in terms of member states which seems to have induced an unjustified  renunciation to part of ethical values , has  only resulted in low overall growth.

 

EUROPEAN UNION - 15 COUNTRIES (before 2004)

MN

BN USD

 

BN USD

%

taxes

%

%

POPULATION

GDP

GDP/POP

MILITARY   EXP.

PUBLIC DEBT

PUBLICDEBT/PIB

BN USD

taxes/GDP

GINI

402

16 544

41 154

320

14 023

84.8

7 121

43

31

EUROPEAN UNION - 27 COUNTRIES (after 2007)

504

17960

35 635

345

14 738

82

7526

42

30

GAP

102

1 416

-5 879

25

715

-2.8

405

-1

-1

 

The 80% increase in the number of countries provided only an overall GDP growth of 8.6% and a population increase of 24.8%. The averaged GDP per capita of the twelve new members is $ 13,882 as compared to  $ 41,154 dollars for the Europe of fifteen. These countries being  poor, are not over-indebted.

The increasing number of members-states may be justified, at the expense of the speed of integration, by social reasons based on humanitarian solidarity with countries that are lagging behind, but these new member states should accept democratic, social  and ethical values and reconsider their rigid conservatism that affects their development.

 

11-THE LIMITS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

The purpose of the above analysis was to determine whether the EU could be regarded as a world power  that it is arithmetically or if in the field of economics and geopolitics, it is wiser to stick to its components: each Member State.

After a phase of purely economic association, European countries have attempted to create an economic and political Union that could rival the great powers of the moment: USA and USSR and then USA and China. 

 

The difference between these great powers and the European Union is that they are or were nations.

A nation is characterized in our opinion by:

1. A common language,

2. A common economic area,

3. A common currency,

4. A willingness to represent a group of currents of thought in Europe including the identity and historical heritage of each state that is both rich and ancient and which is the wealth of Europe and also the willingness to discard the idea to be the bearer of a political doctrine  as it is currently the case,

5. A sufficient autonomy of each Member State in order to allow them to implement a social policy that suits the identity of each one,

6. Common laws in particular in the field of Human rights, social rights and Justice as well as a common ethics,

7. A central government understanding  and admitting the differences between the member states,

8. A median income of households  in harmony on the whole European territory

9. A social and medical protection similar for all European citizens,

10. A coordinated education system which discards any indoctrination and defends History as it is and not arranged for the benefit of any national glory,

11. A common deterrent under a single command and independent of the two major powers,

12. A single external and reliable foreign policy.

 

The European Union is far from being a nation, and each member state wishes to retain considerable discretion.

Moreover the conservative doctrinaire thinking in economics would not allow the action of the Member States, which would wish to adopt in the frame of a European nation, a policy with a strong social involvement  requiring an important role of the State in all spheres of economic and of social life in order to avoid crises, which damage the welfare of citizens.

 

Despite the large development subsidies, the gap between north and south and between west and east are still very important because their applications were not properly controlled. This lack of rigor is also visible in the Euro zone which was opened to some countries that did not have met "initially" the conditions, which permit to face  the constraints of a common currency. The former Communist countries remain poor and as yet neither the capitalism nor the European Union  have really enriched them.

 

Europe has no real parliament. However it seems that an organization that leaves the prerogative to national parliaments or to bodies emanating from it, is currently the most suitable. A powerful European Parliament would require that all member states implement a highly conservative policy, which would be difficult then to relax by the representatives of the Member States in the European Council and in the Council of the  European Union. Member States, which wish to implement a very social policy might have a too limited flexibility.

 

The European Union has many vernacular languages but no common language (which could be for example English for practical purposes given the failure of Esperanto). The absence of a single common language could restrict the appropriation of the European Union by the sole elites as also shown by  the failure of the European elections

 

The EU has no army and is submitted to NATO.

 

The excessively rapid enlargement of the European Union and of its Euro area, by absorption without stabilization phase and sufficient common values, might lead to the disintegration of ethics  and identity.