Geopolitics-social disparities

 

PLANETARY GEOPOLITICS AND  ECONOMICS TODAY

 

VII -THE PLANETARY SOCIAL DISPARITIES

Society for the Promotion of a European Human Rights Model

 

Association pour la Promotion d'un Modèle Européen des Droits de l'Homme 

 

By  Didier BERTIN

 

July 20, 2012

 

 

 Table of Contents

 

 

I-INTRODUCTION-page 7

 

II - GDP - page 11

1-THE TWO WORLD LEADERS: UNITED STATES AND CHINA AND THE OTHER THIRTEEN  COUNTRIES HAVING A GDP HIGHER THAN ONE TRILLION USD -page 11

2-THE FIRST FOURTEEN COUNTRIES - INDIA EXCLUDED page 13

3-COUNTRIES HAVING A GDP INCLUDED BETWEEN ONE HUNDRED BILLION USD AND ONE TRILLION USD - page 13

4-THE OTHER HUNDRED THIRTY FOUR COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD INCLUDING INDIA-page 14

5-CASE OF THE FIRST THREE ECONOMIC LEADERS COMPARED TO THE FOURTH ONE- page 14

6-REAL WORLD AND MEDIA WORLD - PAGE 16

7-EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REAL WORLD AND MEDIA WORLD-Page 18

8-THE LIMITS OF GDP AND THE DANGERS OF ITS GROWTH - Page 44 

 

III-MILITARY DETERRENCE - page 49

1-THE TWO REAL GREAT POWERS-Page 49

2-THE THREE SECONDARY POWERS page 51

3-OTHER COUNTRIES WITH ANNUAL DEFENCE BUDGET  IN EXCESS OF FORTY BILLION - page 52

4 - ISRAEL -page 55 

 

IV-OIL: RISK FOR THE DEMOCRACIES - page 57

1 - MAIN NET-OIL IMPORTERS -page 57

2-ORGANIZATION OF OIL PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS - page 58

3-ECONOMIC SITUATION OF OIL PRODUCERS AND  EXPORTERS -    page 59

4-POLITY OF OIL PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS  - page 62

5- THE CHOICES IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY - page 65 

 

V-PUBLIC DEBT-page 66

1 - KEY DATA ON PUBLIC DEBT-page 66

2- THE RISK OF OVER-INDEBTEDNESS CONCERNS ESSENTIALLY THE RICHEST COUNTRIES -page 67

3-THE PUBLIC "OVER-INDEBTED" COUNTRIES ARE MAINLY IN THE RICHEST ONES, ACCOUNTING FOR ONLY  13.9% OF WORLD POPULATION -  page 68

4- EUROPEAN UNION, EURO AREA AND PUBLIC DEBT - page 71

5- JAPAN -page  73

6 - POLICY REGARDING  PUBLIC INDEBTEDNESS-page 74 

 

VI -OTHER ECONOMIC OPTIONS - page 75

1 - THE RISK OF PROTECTIONISM - page 75

2 - ECONOMIC CHALLENGES- page 76 

 

VII - PLANETARY SOCIAL DISPARTIES - page 80

1-DEFINITION-page 80

2-CALCULATION- page-80

3-GINI INDEX APPLIED TO THE PLANET-page 81

4-ANALYSIS-page 86 

 

VIII-THE REASONS WHY THE EUROPEAN UNION IS NOT A GREAT POWER - Page 93

1-EU AND NATO-page 93

2-CREATION AND TREATIES - EXPANSION AND INTEGRATION, Page 96

3-THE PROBLEM OF THE APPLICATION OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS-page 98

4-THE CONSTRAINTS OF DECISION MAKING-page 100

5 - INSTITUTIONS page 101

6-THE POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION-page 108

7-INTERNATIONAL POLITICS - page 112

8-THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ELECTIONS - page 113

9- THE DISPARITIES OF THE MEDIAN INCOME OF HOUSEHOLDS IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - page 114

10-THE NEW MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION -page 115

11-THE LIMITS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION page 116

12-A PARTICULAR EXAMPLE OF THE RIGHTIST ROOTING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION-page 119

A-The Prague Declaration of June 3, 2008 - page 120

B-The dangerous consequences of the Declaration  of Prague and of the related Declaration of the European Parliament-page 121

k-DECLARATION - page 135 

 

IX - GENERAL CONCLUSION -page 138 

 

APPENDICES

 

1-DATA OF THE FIRST 60 COUNTRIES WITH GDP HIGHER THAN 100 BILLIONS USD AND THE REST OF THE WORLD - Pages 145 and 146

2-DATA ON THE INDEBTED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION page 147

3-DATA OF THE  EURO AREA COUNTRIES -page 148

4-GENERAL DATA OF THE EUROPEAN UNION -page 149 

 

 

VII -THE PLANETARY SOCIAL DISPARITIES

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE GINI INDEX 

 

The income disparities may be reduced by the state levies if they are equitably redistributed in the form of allowances, income and services. The impact of the levies on the income distribution depends on both their nature (e.g. direct, or indirect taxes and their base of calculation) and on their applications. Only a government with a strong social policy can ensure an equitable redistribution of income.

The levy rate  has thus a limited interest in the assessment of social justice, without  taking into account also the Gini index hereunder defined. 

 

1-DEFINITION

The Gini index measures the inequality in income distribution by country and was created is by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini. This index varies from 0 to 1 or to 100%, where 0 means that everyone receives an equal income and  1 or 100%, means that one single person receives all the incomes of a country and that the others receive nothing.

 

2-CALCULATION

This index is usually calculated using the Lorentz function, which associates to each part of the population ordered by increasing income, the share of its incomes. In practice and because of data availability,  the income per share of the  population is taken into account and the Gini index is calculated with  the  formula of Brown:

 formula-jpg.jpg

                       

 

 

 

Where X is the cumulative share of the population, and Y is the cumulative share of income.

 

This index gives an indication about the social justice and thus of the democracy effectiveness in a country and is used by many international institutions. 

 

3-THE GINI INDEX APPLIED TO THE PLANET 

 

A-Determination of significant geographical areas

Areas below, were determined on a geopolitical basis and without necessary relation to the geographical logic. 

 

  • Middle East: These countries belong generally to Asia but have been considered separately on the basis of political, cultural and even conflictual  cohesion. Although Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait do not provide of course data to determine their Gini index, we have estimated them since they are very useful  to have a better understanding of the whole landscape of this area given the importance of oil revenues. Egypt is included in this area.
  • Europe: Europe includes for clarity, the countries which are entirely on the European continent thus excluding Russia and Turkey.
  • Asia: Asia excludes the Middle East, Russia and China in order to give more meaning to this continent too large and too heterogeneous. China is viewed separately.
  • Russia, China and the United States: These countries alone account for specific geo-political areas. Their integration with other areas would have opacified the understanding of the other countries because of the geographical peculiarity of Russia (vast and on two continents) and the global supremacy of the United States and China.
  • Canada: The country has been included in the United States' area because it is substantially a reality and because the geographic North America is not socio-politically significant.
  • Latin America: This group includes all American Spanish speaking countries and Brazil and has a lot more geopolitical, social and cultural sense than their geographic position (North, Central and South America).
  • Africa: We have excluded from the geopolitical Africa, the Maghreb, Libya and Egypt, which focus cultural, religious, linguistic, economic and conflictual  features different from the rest of Geographic Africa.
  • Maghreb or small Maghreb includes Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
  • For sake of clarity, the Caribbean and Oceania were considered separately from other nearby areas.

 

LIST OF 140 COUNTRIES WITH THEIR GEOPOLITICAL AREA

 

Rank

COUNTRIES

Index %

Date

AREA

Population- 000 000

         

Rounded

Accumulated

140

NAMIBIA

70.7

2003

AFRICA

2

 

139

SEYCHELLES

65.8

2007

AFRICA

0

 

138

SOUTH AFRICA

65.0

2005

AFRICA

49

 

137

LESOTHO

63.2

1995

AFRICA

2

 

136

BOSTWANA

63.0

1993

AFRICA

2

 

135

SIERRA LEONE

62.9

1989

AFRICA

5

 

134

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

61.3

1993

AFRICA

5

 

133

SAUDIA ARABIA

60.0 Est

 

MIDDLE EAST

27

 

132

KUWAIT

60.0 Est

MIDDLE EAST

3

 

131

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

60.0 Est

MIDDLE EAST

5

 

130

HAITI

59.2

2001

CARIBBEAN

10

 

11 COUNTRIES

 

108

108

129

BOLIVIA

58.2

2009

LATIN AMERICA

10

 

128

HONDURAS

57.7

2007

LATIN AMERICA

8

 

127

COLOMBIA

56.0

2010

LATIN AMERICA

45

 

126

GUATEMALA

55.1

2007

LATIN AMERICA

14

 

125

THAILAND

53.6

2009

ASIA

67

 

124

PARAGUAY

53.2

2009

LATIN AMERICA

7

 

123

CHILE

52.1

2009

LATIN AMERICA

41

 

122

BRAZIL

51.9

2012

LATIN AMERICA

206

 

121

PANAMA

51.9

2010

LATIN AMERICA

4

 

120

MEXICO

51.7

2008

LATIN AMERICA

115

 

119

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

50.9

1996

OCEANIA

6

 

118

ZAMBIA

50.8

2004

AFRICA

14

 

117

SWAZILAND

50.4

2001

AFRICA

1

 

116

COSTA RICA

50.3

2009

LATIN AMERICA

5

 

115

GAMBIA

50.2

1998

AFRICA

2

 

114

ZIMBABWE

50.1

2006

AFRICA

13

 

16 COUNTRIES

 

558

666

113

SRI LANKA

49.0

2009

ASIA

21

 

112

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

48.4

2007

CARIBBEAN

10

 

111

CHINA

48.0

2009

CHINESE AREA

1 343

 

110

MADAGASCAR

47.5

2001

AFRICA

23

 

109

SINGAPORE

47.3

2011

ASIA

5

 

108

ECUADOR 

47.3

2011

LATIN AMERICA

15

 

107

NEPAL

47.2

2008

ASIA

30

 

106

EL SALVADOR

46.9

2009

LATIN AMERICA

6

 

105

RWANDA

46.8

2000

AFRICA

12

 

104

MALAYSIA

46.2

2009

ASIA

38

 

103

PERU

46.0

2010

LATIN AMERICA

30

 

102

ARGENTINA

45.8

2009

LATIN AMERICA

42

 

101

PHILIPPINES

45.8

2006

ASIA

104

 

100

MOZAMBIQUE

45.6

2008

AFRICA

24

 

99

JAMAICA

45.5

2004

CARIBBEAN

3

 

98

URUGUAY

45.3

2010

LATIN AMERICA

3

 

97

BULGARIA

45.3

2007

EUROPE

7

 

96

USA

45.0

2007

US AREA

314

 

95

CAMEROON

44.6

2001

AFRICA

20

 

94

IRAN

44.5

2006

MIDDLE EAST

79

 

93

CAMBODIA

44.4

2007

ASIA

15

 

92

UGANDA

44.3

2009

AFRICA

35

 

91

MACEDONIA

44.2

2008

EUROPE

2

 

90

NIGERIA

43.7

2003

AFRICA

170

 

89

KENYA

42.5

2008

AFRICA

43

 

88

BURUNDI

42.4

1998

AFRICA

11

 

87

RUSSIA

42.0

2010

RUSSIAN AREA

138

 

86

COTE D’IVOIRE

41.5

2008

AFRICA

22

 

85

SENEGAL

41.3

2003

AFRICA

13

 

84

QATAR

41.1

2007

MIDDLE EAST

2

 

83

MOROCCO

40.9

2007

MAGHREB

32

 

82

GEORGIA

40.8

2009

ASIA

5

 

81

TURKMENISTAN

40.8

1998

ASIA

5

 

80

NICARAGUA

40.5

2010

LATIN AMERICA

6

 

79

TURKEY

40.2

2010

MIDDLE EAST

80

 

78

MALI

40.1

2001

AFRICA

15

 

77

TUNISIA

40.0

2005

MAGHREB

11

 

76

JORDAN

39.7

2007

MIDDLE EAST

7

 

75

BURKINA FASO

39.7

2007

AFRICA

17

 

74

GUINEA

39.4

2007

AFRICA

11

 

73

GHANA

39.4

2005

AFRICA

25

 

72

ISRAEL

39.2

2008

MIDDLE EAST

8

 

71

MAURITANIA

39.0

2000

AFRICA

3

 

70

MAURITIUS

39.0

2006

AFRICA

1

 

69

VENEZUELA

39.0

2011

LATIN AMERICA

28

 

68

MALAWI

39.0

2004

AFRICA

16

 

67

PORTUGAL

38.5

2007

EUROPE

11

 

66

LIBERIA

38.2

2007

AFRICA

4

 

65

MOLDOVA

38.0

2008

EUROPE

4

 

49 COUNTRIES

 

2869

3535

64

YEMEN

37.5

2007

MIDDLE EAST

25

 

63

VIETNAM

37.6

2008

ASIA

91

 

62

JAPAN

37.6

2008

ASIA

127

 

61

TANZANIA

37.6

2007

AFRICA

44

 

60

INDIA

36.8

2004

ASIA

1 205

 

59

UZBEKISTAN

36.8

2003

ASIA

28

 

58

INDONESIA

36.8

2009

ASIA

248

 

57

LAOS

36.7

2008

ASIA

7

 

56

MONGOLIA

36.5

2008

ASIA

3

 

55

BENIN

36.5

2003

AFRICA

10

 

54

NEW ZEALAND

36.2

1997

OCEANIA

4

 

53

BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA

36.2

2007

EUROPE

5

 

12 COUNTRIES

 

1797

5332

52

LITHUANIA

35.5

2009

EUROPE

4

 

51

ALGERIA

35.5

1995

MAGHREB

35

 

50

LATVIA

35.2

2010

EUROPE

2

 

49

ALBANIA

34.5

2008

EUROPE

3

 

48

EGYPT

34.4

2001

MIDDLE EAST

84

 

47

POLAND

34.2

2008

EUROPE

38

 

46

UNITED KINGDOM

34.0

2005

EUROPE

63

 

45

NIGER

34.0

2007

AFRICA

17

 

44

IRELAND

33.9

2010

EUROPE

5

 

43

AZERBAIDJAN

33.7

2008

ASIA

9

 

42

SWITZERLAND

33.7

2008

EUROPE

8

 

41

KYRGYZSTAN

33.4

2007

ASIA

5

 

40

ROMANIA

33.3

2010

EUROPE

22

 

39

BANGLADESH

33.2

2005

ASIA

161

 

38

GREECE

33.0

2005

EUROPE

11

 

37

FRANCE

32.7

2008

EUROPE

66

 

36

TAJIKISTAN

32.6

2007

ASIA

8

 

35

TAIWAN

32.6

2000

ASIA

23

 

34

CANADA

32.1

2005

US AREA

34

 

33

ITALY

32.0

2006

EUROPE

61

 

32

SPAIN

32.0

2005

EUROPE

47

 

31

TIMOR LESTE

31.9

2007

ASIA

1

 

30

ESTONIA

31.3

2010

EUROPE

1

 

29

SOUTH KOREA

31.0

2010

ASIA

49

 

28

CZECH REPUBLIC

31.0

2009

EUROPE

10

 

27

NETHERLANDS

30.9

2007

EUROPE

17

 

26

ARMENIA

30.9

2008

ASIA

3

 

25

PAKISTAN

30.6

2008

ASIA

190

 

24

AUSTRALIA

30.5

2006

OCEANIA

22

 

23

ETHIOPIA

30.0

2000

AFRICA

94

 

22

KOSOVO

30.0

2006

EUROPE

2

 

31 COUNTRIES

 

1095

6427

21

AFGHANISTAN

29.4

2008

ASIA

30

 

20

CYPRUS

29.0

2005

EUROPE

1

 

19

SLOVENIA

28.4

2008

EUROPE

2

 

18

SERBIA

28.2

2008

EUROPE

7

 

17

ICELAND

28.0

2006

EUROPE

0

 

16

BELGIUM

28.0

2005

EUROPE

10

 

15

UKRAINE

27.5

2008

EUROPE

45

 

14

BELARUS

27.2

2008

EUROPE

10

 

13

GERMANY

27.0

2006

EUROPE

81

 

12

CROATIA

27.0

2009

EUROPE

4

 

11

FINLAND

26.8

2008

EUROPE

5

 

10

KAZAKHSTAN

26.7

2009

ASIA

18

 

9

MALTA

26.0

2007

EUROPE

0

 

8

Luxembourg

26.0

2005

EUROPE

1

 

7

SLOVAKIA

26.0

2005

EUROPE

5

 

6

AUSTRIA

26.0

2007

EUROPE

8

 

5

NORWAY

25.0

2008

EUROPE

5

 

4

DENMARK

24.8

2011

EUROPE

6

 

3

HUNGARY

24.7

2009

EUROPE

10

 

2

MONTENEGRO

24.3

2010

EUROPE

1

 

1

SWEDEN

23.0

2005

EUROPE

9

 

21 COUNTRIES

258

6685

TOTAL                                                                     

6685

 

REST OF THE   WORLD - 53 COUNTRIES

336

 

Source of  figures : CIA Factbook -    WORLD

7021

 

 

The Gini index has been calculated for these 140 countries and thus 53 countries mostly poor, remain in the shadows.

 

4-ANALYSIS 

 

A-COUNTRIES BY GEOPOLITICAL AREA

 

The Gini indexes of 140 countries were taken into account (out of which 3 estimated) representing  72.5% of the 193 countries recognized by the UN, and  95% of the world population. The indexes of 53 countries are not known because of insufficient data and most of them combine both high poverty and high income disparities and are mostly African.

 

These 53 countries represent 27.5% of all countries, but only 5% of the world population. 

 

The countries taken into consideration:

 

EUROPE: 41 countries out of 43 (excluding Russia and Turkey)

AFRICA: 33 countries out of  50 or 66% of the African countries without Maghreb, Libya and Egypt, which are viewed separately.

LATIN AMERICA: 17 countries out of 19 - The Caribbean is considered separately.

ASIA: 26 countries out of 31, Middle East, Russia and China are viewed separately.

MIDDLE EAST: 10 countries out of 15

MAGHREB: 3 countries

RUSSIAN AREA: 1 country, Russia

U.S. AREA: 2 countries, USA and Canada

• CHINESE AREA: 1 country, China

OCEANIA: 3 countries out of 14

• CARIBBEAN: 3 countries also out of 14

 

COUNTRY NOT CONSIDERED DUE TO A LACK OF DATA:

 

AFRICA: 17 - EUROPE: 2 - ASIA: 5 - LATIN AMERICA: 2 -THE CARIBBEAN: 11 - OCEANIA: 11 -

MIDDLE EAST:  5TOTAL: 53

 

These 53 countries added to the 140 countries taken into consideration represent the 193 UN members.

These 53 countries represent 27.5% of the countries but only 5% of the world population.

Excluding the countries of the Caribbean and Oceania: We see that 55% of the 31 remaining countries, belong to Africa. 

 

B-DISTRIBUTION PER TRANCHE OF GINI INDEX 

 

a) Tranche from 59.2% to 70.7% - 11 Countries -

7.9% of the considered countries - 108 million inhabitants i.e. a negligible portion of the world population - 1.4% of the world population

A few  monopolize almost all the wealth - most of the people are practically left with nothing - These countries are in fact feudal organizations.

This tranche comprises 11 countries including 7 poor African countries and also Haiti. The other three are  Middle Eastern oil countries whose power and wealth is held by a few families. 

 

b) Tranche from  50.1% to 58.2% - 16 Countries

 

11.4% of the considered countries -558 million inhabitants i.e. 8% of the world population

A few take most of the wealth and leave a little to the majority of the population. Some of these countries may have a semblance of democracy that the figures debunk.

This tranche comprises 16 countries including 10 Latin American countries, 4 African countries, Thailand and Papua New Guinea.

This social organization is very unfair and is widespread in Latin America. Colombia is of course included in this tranche but more surprisingly Brazil and Mexico also.

Brazil now has the sixth GDP of the world but extreme poverty is very far from being eradicated.

 

c) Tranche from  38% to 49% -  49 Countries

35% of the considered countries - 2,869 million inhabitants - 41% of the world population.

This is the largest group in terms of countries number and population, whose common characteristic is often a poor economic development and/or an imperfect democratic functioning.

 

The distribution of wealth exists but is unfair without being so   unequal than in the two previous tranches and often because of the public administration inefficiency or of the corruption.

This tranche includes USA, China, Russia, 7 Latin American countries, 18 African countries, 8 Asian countries, 5 Middle East countries, 2 Maghreb countries, 2 Caribbean countries and 4 European countries: Macedonia, Bulgaria, Moldova and Portugal.

In number of countries, Africa has the largest share of this tranche (37%), followed by Asia (16%) and Latin America (14%).However this tranche is mainly composed in terms of population by "China, USA and Russia" representing together 63% of this tranche.

The United States and China have roughly similar unfair  indexes of 45% and 48% respectively and Russia has an index of 42%.

The U.S. seem to be part of the imperfect democracies in the field of unfair  income distribution and in fact 47 million Americans live below the poverty line and have no social and medical insurance. The United States hold the world record of incarceration slightly before Russia.

The Situation of China stems from its full economic strategy in order to become a leading world power. The Chinese Communist Party seems to have won this challenge. This strategy also includes the control of the Yuan, which is  artificially low in order to enable China to remain the world's largest exporter. Unlike capitalist countries, China has managed its development with a limited public debt. China is a great power but most of the Chinese people are poor.

Only a small part of the Russian population has been enriched by the market economy,  since few oligarchs have monopolized most part of the revenues and that the former common assets were sold at low price and/or acquired by corruption. This situation is summarized by the high Gini index of 42%. The GDP per capita being low, the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. 

Israel is also part of this segment with an index of 39%. The progressive parties have been sidelined by the rise of an orchestrated populism, that takes advantage of the reality of insecurity. The rise of Islamism following the Arab spring, the seizure of power in Egypt by the Muslim Brotherhood who are likely to jeopardize the peace agreements, the threat of Iran, the uncertain lot of the Syria dictatorship and before that the rise of Islamism in Turkey (former ally, which became openly hostile) and in Gaza put the  Middle East in a precarious situation.

The parliament elected in 2009 is in the hands of right-wing and religious parties which were recently joined by the centrist Party (KADIMA) afraid to lose anticipated elections. The indignants will probably not have their social claims satisfied and the Gini index could worsen. 

 

d) Tranche from  36% to 37.5% - 12 countries

 8.6% of the considered countries - 1,797 million inhabitants - 26% of world population

Income distribution is better than in former tranches but still very unsatisfactory, especially since 11 of these 12 countries are poor.

Japan is part of this tranche and 16% of the population this country lives below the poverty line. The Japanese  government is paralyzed by the largest public debt in the world.  The social situation of Japan may only improved through a substantial tax reform increasing the too low levy rate.

Taking into account the already analyzed  tranches, we can see that 62.3% of countries that represent 76% of the world population suffer from a very unequal income distribution. The social order of the vast majority of the planet is at stake; this is not only an economic issue but also an ethical and social justice issue.

 

Summary of  tranches from (a) to (d)

 

 

POPULATION

000 000

World

 Population

GINI tranches

 

108

1.5%

59,2-70,7

 

558

7,9%

50,1-58,2

 

2869

40,9%

38-49

 

1797

25,6%

36-37,5

TOTAL

5332

75,9%

 

 

e) Tranche  from 30% to 35.5% - 31 countries

22.1% of the countries considered - 1,095 million inhabitants - 16% of the world population

We reach at last a tranche of income distribution that starts to be acceptable but not entirely satisfactory. 52% of countries in this tranche are European and gather 360 million inhabitants or 33% of the population of this tranche, 29% are Asian, including 4 former Soviet republics.

13 of the 16 European countries in this tranche, belong to the European Union; they represent  48% of the European Union countries and  69% of its population, among which one can note the presence of the United Kingdom and France.

European countries probably use primarily  indirect taxes that penalize the poorest people. In France for example VAT and taxes on oil products amounted respectively to 132 billion and 14 billion Euros (146 billion) in 2011 or 57% of the net tax revenue.

f) Tranche of 23% to 29.4%- 21 Countries Champions of solidarity

15% of the considered countries, but only 3.7% of world population

90.5% of European countries

• 44% of countries of the European Union (12 out of 27), but only 27% of the population of the European Union.

This tranche which does not include France, is marked by solidarity in terms of income distribution and is a sort of a European club.

19 of 21 of the countries of this tranche are European countries out of which 12  are members of the European Union but compose only 27% of its population. The champion country of this tranche is of course Sweden with a score of 23%.

 

The solidarity reflected by the Gini index has no link with economic growth, but is a mean to reach it by sharing equitably  its benefit or the  troubles in case of crisis.